Wolverine (birth name: James Howlett; alias: Logan and Weapon X) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, mostly in association with the X-Men. He is a mutant who possesses animal-keen senses, enhanced physical capabilities, a powerful regenerative ability known as a healing factor, and three retractable claws in each hand. Wolverine has been depicted variously as a member of the X-Men, Alpha Flight, and the Avengers. The character appeared in the last panel of The Incredible Hulk #180 before having a larger role in #181 (cover-dated November 1974). He was created by Marvel editor-in-chief Roy Thomas, writer Len Wein, and Marvel art director John Romita Sr. Romita designed the character’s costume, but the character was first drawn for publication by Herb Trimpe. Wolverine then joined a revamped version of the superhero team the X-Men, where eventually writer Chris Claremont and artist-writer John Byrne would play significant roles in the character’s development. Artist Frank Miller collaborated with Claremont and helped revise the character with a four-part eponymous limited series from September to December 1982, which debuted Wolverine’s catchphrase, “I’m the best there is at what I do, but what I do best isn’t very nice.” Wolverine is typical of the many tough antiheroes that emerged in American popular culture after the Vietnam War;:265 his willingness to use deadly force and his brooding nature became standard characteristics for comic book antiheroes by the end of the 1980s.:277 As a result, the character became a fan favorite of the increasingly popular X-Men franchise,:263, 265 and has been featured in his own solo comic book series since 1988. He has appeared in most X-Men adaptations, including animated television series, video games, and the live-action 20th Century Fox X-Men film series, in which he is played by Hugh Jackman. Troye Sivan portrayed a younger version in the 2009 film X-Men Origins: Wolverine. The character is highly rated in many comics best-of lists, ranked #1 in Wizard magazine’s 2008 Top 200 Comic Book Characters; 4th in Empire’s 2008 Greatest Comic Characters; and 4th on IGN’s 2011 Top 100 Comic Book Heroes.
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